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Tag Archives: music attorney

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Erin M. Jacobson on USC’s Music Career Panel with Randy Jackson

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Categories: Music, Music Industry, Speaking, Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

I had the privilege of speaking on the Music Career Panel put on by USC’s Thornton School of Music.  The event was moderated by Randy Jackson, producer and former judge on American Idol.

Here are some photos from the event.

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Musicians: If You Haven’t Registered With These 4 Services, You’re Missing Out on Your Money

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Categories: Music Industry, Royalties, Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

There are several potential musician income streams that you’ll unfortunately never see if you don’t set yourself up to collect them. More established musicians have the same responsibility, but often have representatives taking care of these procedures for them, whereas independent musicians have to oversee royalty collection themselves. This means that many independent musicians are losing out on money they could otherwise be collecting because they either fail to register their songs properly, or they haven’t registered at all with the appropriate agencies that collect and pay out these royalties.

Are you properly registered with these four services? If not, you’re probably missing out on money you deserve!

Note: This article only focuses on royalty streams within the United States. It does not discuss international royalty streams.

1. Performing rights organizations

Performing rights organizations (PROs) collect performance royalties, which are royalties paid when musical compositions (not sound recordings) are played on terrestrial radio, digital radio, streamed online, heard on television, played in a live performance, or played in a public place like a bar or restaurant. If you aren’t registered properly or at all with a PRO, you won’t be getting paid for any of these uses of your music.

The three performance rights organizations in the United States are ASCAPBMI, and SESAC. ASCAP and BMI allow any songwriter to join, whereas SESAC requires a songwriter to be invited to join.

Songwriters need to register in three ways for a complete registration: as a writer, as a publisher, and for the individual compositions. Before elaborating on the necessities of registration, it’s important to note that performance royalties owed for a particular person’s contribution to a composition are split 50/50 between the writer and the publisher, known as the “writer’s share” and the “publisher’s share” respectively.

  • Writer: Every songwriter needs to register as a writer with a PRO in order to get paid the “writer’s share” of performance royalties, which is paid directly to the writer from the PRO. Writers can only register with one PRO at a time (not all three), although if you aren’t happy with your chosen PRO, there’s usually an opportunity to change your affiliation at a later date.
  • Publisher: If you aren’t signed with a music publisher, then you’re actually your own publisher, and you need to also register as such with the same performance rights organization to which you are registered as a writer in order to get paid the “publisher’s share” of performance royalties, which is paid by the PRO to the publisher of the composition. If you’re a songwriter who’s already signed with a publisher, you may not need to register as a publisher depending on your type of publishing deal.
  • Individual compositions: You have to register each individual composition that you write with your PRO. If you don’t register your compositions, your PRO will not pay performance royalties on those compositions because those compositions won’t be in the PRO’s database, and the PRO won’t know who’s supposed to be paid for those compositions.

2. SoundExchange

When it comes to copyrights and the practice of the music business, sound recordings are treated separately from musical compositions. In the United States, there’s currently only a performance royalty for sound recordings for digital performances, which are for uses like satellite radio and internet streaming. Registering for SoundExchange is free and will make sure you are receiving royalties when your recordings are streamed or otherwise digitally performed. As with compositions, it’s imperative that you register your individual sound recordings so that the recordings and the payment designee can both be recognized.

3. Harry Fox Agency

The Harry Fox Agency collects mechanical royalties, which are the royalties paid from the owner of the sound recording to the owner of the composition for the privilege of reproducing the composition onto the master recording. For physical CD sales and digital downloads, this is a statutory rate (i.e., set by the government) and is currently set at 9.1 cents for compositions lasting five minutes or less. There are also mechanical royalties paid for various online interactive streaming and subscription service uses (think Spotify) as well as mechanicals for ringtones, and the rates for these uses depend on the type of use.

If you’re a self-released artist who doesn’t write with anyone else, you’ll essentially be paying sales and download mechanical royalties to yourself, but it’s still important to register with Harry Fox to collect the other mechanical payments. If you have a relationship with a label or anyone else releasing your music (including co-writers where a song you contributed to as a writer appears on other artists’ albums), registration is important to collect all mechanical payments. If you don’t register and you aren’t diligent about collecting your mechanical royalties yourself, you’ll be missing out on income that could add up over time.

4. YouTube

The YouTube revenue system is slightly complicated, but it basically comes down to monetizing your videos by allowing YouTube to show ads before your video starts, and then you share in the revenue generated from those ads. The more views you get, the more the ad is seen, and the more money you make. For most people, the amount earned here might be minimal, but like finding change in the couch cushions, every little bit helps.

 

If you need assistance with signing up for these services, contact a music lawyer or use a service like Indie Artist Resource. Signing up for these services is the basic start to getting your music career set up correctly. Don’t lose easy money — it could pay back big time down the road.

 

Do you have questions that you’d like to get answered in an upcoming “Ask a Music Lawyer” article? Please send topic requests to askamusiclawyer@gmail.com. Please note that specific case advice cannot be given, and if you have questions pertaining to an issue you are personally experiencing, you should seek a consultation with a music attorney.

 

Erin M. Jacobson is a practicing music attorney, experienced deal negotiator, and seasoned advisor of intellectual property rights. Her clients range from Grammy and Emmy Award winners to independent artists, record labels, music publishers, and production companies. Ms. Jacobson also owns and oversees all operations for Indie Artist Resource, the independent musician’s resource for legal and business protection offering template contracts, consultations, and other services designed to meet the unique needs of independent musicians.

Originally published on Sonicbids.com.

Disclaimer: This article is for educational and informational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice. The content contained in this article is not legal advice or a legal opinion on any specific matter or matters. If this article is considered an advertisement, it is general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. This article does not constitute or create a lawyer-client relationship between Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. and you or any other user. The law may vary based on the facts or particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking the professional counsel of an attorney licensed in your state.

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How to Get Legal Help if You Can’t Afford a Music Attorney

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Categories: Business, Law, Legal Issues, Music Industry, Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Hopefully you’ve read my most recent article where I explained how to choose the right attorney for you. Even though you now know what qualities to look for in an attorney, you may still wonder whether hiring one is possible if you are on a tight budget. As I discussed last time, don’t try to handle the matter yourself, and having a non-music or non-entertainment lawyer handle your matter is less than ideal because only a lawyer experienced in music and entertainment will know the specific nuances that pertain to your situation. While the best solution is still to hire an experienced music attorney to handle your situation, here are three less costly options for independent musicians to get their legal needs met.

1. Ask the lawyer you want to work with if there’s any flexibility on payment policies

After finding out the lawyer’s customary rate, you can ask if he or she can do the work on a flat-fee basis, has discounted rates for independent musicians, or has a payment plan where you can pay the fee in installments.

You can also ask if the attorney would be willing to work on a percentage basis, but know that many attorneys will only work on percentage for high net worth clients. Don’t expect the attorney to work for free or try to sell him or her on the premise that the attorney will somehow make a lot of money once you’re famous. The music industry is a speculative business, and a new client without a proven track record will often not produce a return on a lawyer’s investment of time and skill.

If your matter involves a lawsuit (most often for copyright infringement or breach of contract), you can ask the attorney if he or she works on a “contingency,” meaning that the attorney doesn’t get paid unless he or she wins your case. There are some lawyers who still work on contingency, but most don’t. Keep in mind that even if an attorney does work on contingency, you will most likely still have to pay court filing costs, which can be expensive on their own.

2. Use a reputable online legal resource

Usually, I advise non-lawyers to proceed with extreme caution when downloading or using templates from the internet because these templates are often poor quality and usually not designed for independent musicians. Plus, drafting changes to template agreements without proper legal training can often lead to unforeseen consequences that could be detrimental to your income, copyright ownership, and career.

Here is the exception: in my dealings with many independent musicians, I saw that many musicians needed but didn’t have access to resources to meet their legal needs due to cost or other prohibitions preventing them from hiring an attorney. Therefore, I started Indie Artist Resource (currently only available for California residents) to offer template contracts, intellectual property registration services, and legal consultations all specifically designed to address the unique needs of independent musicians.

Despite the varying quality of most online templates, I’m confident in recommending the templates and services from Indie Artist Resource, as I have personally developed all of the templates with the needs of independent musicians in mind, and I oversee all operations of the business, including handling the consultations. While the nature of template agreements means that a template isn’t tailored to each individual user’s specific needs, some protection is better than no protection – and I’d rather see a musician using a well-drafted template than proceeding without any agreement in place.

3. Contact a legal clinic for the arts

There are some nonprofit organizations that offer free or low-cost legal services to musicians. You can research online whether your state has such an organization and contact the organization to see if what they offer meets your legal needs. Some of the lawyers at these organizations are very competent attorneys who service high-level clients and enjoy volunteering their time to help independent musicians. Of course, others are newly licensed and may or may not be reputable. I cannot comment on the caliber of service you will be getting because it depends on which state you are in, the quality of the organization, and the attorney handling your case. However, if you want to work with someone on an ongoing basis throughout your matter and you can’t afford regular attorney’s fees, then this might be a good option for you to investigate.

 

Erin M. Jacobson is a practicing music attorney, experienced deal negotiator, and seasoned advisor of intellectual property rights. Her clients range from Grammy and Emmy Award winners to independent artists, record labels, music publishers, and production companies. Ms. Jacobson also owns and oversees all operations for Indie Artist Resource, the independent musician’s resource for legal and business protection offering template contracts, consultations, and other services designed to meet the unique needs of independent musicians.

This post first appeared on Sonicbids.com.

Disclaimer: This article is for educational and informational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice. The content contained in this article is not legal advice or a legal opinion on any specific matter or matters. If this article is considered an advertisement, it is general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. This article does not constitute or create a lawyer-client relationship between Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. and you or any other user. The law may vary based on the facts or particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking the professional counsel of an attorney licensed in your state.

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How to Choose a Music Attorney Who’s Perfect for You

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Categories: Articles, Business, Law, Legal Disputes, Legal Issues, Music Industry, Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

 

Before choosing an attorney, you first want to determine whether you actually need a lawyer. The basic rule of thumb is that if you’re presented with a contract, or alternatively, if you feel your contractual or intellectual property rights have been violated, you need a lawyer. Once you’ve determined which services you would like that lawyer to provide, you’ll want to consider several factors to determine whether a particular lawyer is the right fit for your career, especially if this is your first time working with a lawyer.

Your attorney is your representative, and thus, an extension of you for business purposes. You want to choose someone you enjoy working with, is qualified for the services you need, has a rate you can afford, and who will reflect the right image to achieve your goals. Here are eight of the most important considerations when choosing an attorney.

1. Practice area

Is your lawyer a music lawyer, or is it your brother’s friend’s cousin who’s a real estate/personal injury/construction attorney and is willing to look over the contract for free? While this cousin’s generosity is appreciated, you need to say, “Thanks, but no thanks,” and hire an attorney experienced with music contracts. The entertainment industry has very specific contract terminology and industry practices that only pertain to the entertainment industry. This field is so nuanced that even music contracts and film contracts differ enough that some artists have different attorneys for their music and film deals. An attorney who does not focus on music and entertainment contracts will not be familiar with these industry-specific terms and will miss crucial points that separate a good deal from a bad one. This could cost you to lose copyright ownership and/or a lot of money in royalties in addition to other undesirable consequences.

2. Your needs as an artist

Different types of lawyers perform different services. Some lawyers are “transactional” lawyers that draft, review, and negotiate contracts, as well as advise you on career decisions. Having a lawyer handle your contracts is important because even though some contracts may seem fairly simple, contract language is actually very complex and can contain consequences unforeseen to the untrained reader (or drafter). Lawyers endure many stressful years of schooling and training to interpret this language and understand how it affects you. In practice, you may need an attorney to review or draft only one contract for you or you may need him or her to be an ongoing member of your team for all career developments and opportunities, as well as to work with your manager or agent if you have one. Many artist lawyers can also help you set up any business entities you decide to form.

Other lawyers are “litigators,” which means they handle lawsuits by either suing others on your behalf and arguing your case or by defending you from someone suing you. This is the type of lawyer you would hire when someone has violated your contractual or intellectual property rights. A lawyer who understands these types of lawsuits can assess whether you have a valid claim, if you have the proper proof needed to win your case, and represent you through a settlement and/or trial. Note that the ability to bring lawsuits is often regulated by a “statute of limitations,” meaning you’ll often only have a certain amount of time to file the suit. This amount of time varies depending on the type of lawsuit and sometimes by state, so it’s best to consult with a lawyer promptly.

Still yet, there are other attorneys who “shop” artists, which means that they submit your music to record labels and sometimes other music companies to try to get you a deal. Note that many attorneys do not shop, so it is wise to check the attorney’s website or ask the attorney for his or her shopping policy before requesting that the attorney shop you. Be careful here: some “shopping” attorneys will send out anyone’s music for a fee. Music companies know who these attorneys are often don’t take them or their submissions seriously because the company executives know these submissions are not based on the attorney’s genuine endorsement of the music.

3. Personality

Aside from skill, personality is the other most important aspect in choosing the right lawyer for you. You want to make sure:

  • You actually like this person
  • He or she communicates with you in a way you understand
  • He or she understands and keeps your career goals in mind
  • You feel that you can trust him or her
  • You feel he or she has your best interests at heart
  • You feel comfortable letting him or her handle your important business matters

4. Reputation

Just like you hopefully maintain a good reputation in the industry, you want your attorney to have one as well. You can do an online search for an attorney you’re considering to see if his or her website is appealing and professional. You can also find out if he or she has any articles published or does speaking engagements to get a feel for his or her expertise.

More importantly, you want to know whether your potential attorney is honest. You can’t always find this out upfront, but you can ask around to your colleagues to see if anyone has worked with that person and what their experience has been. Also, you can search the attorney’s name on the State Bar website for the state in which the attorney is licensed to see if any disciplinary action has been taken against him or her. Further, an online search may also yield some information in the form of articles or news stories if the attorney has been involved in any unsavory activities.

5. Negotiation style

When you envision your attorney, what do you see? There are many different negotiation and business styles and it’s important to consider which style fits your preferred attorney profile and your business image as an artist.

Some styles include:

  • Screamers: These attorneys scream at everyone to get the job done and intimidate people to get their way. Some are effective, and some are just plain annoying, actually hindering the progress of deals due to their unpleasantness.
  • Bulldogs: Similar to the Screamers, Bulldogs are tough, fierce, and stubborn. They may not scream, but they can be just as difficult.
  • Partiers: These are the ones you see partying on the tour bus with the band. Many music attorneys are actually frustrated musicians, so the Partiers fulfill their unmet dreams of fame by living vicariously through their clients. Partiers may still be great attorneys during the day, but it’s a personal preference whether you want your attorney partying alongside you after the show.
  • Friends: Many attorneys become friends with their clients. This may include hanging together outside of work, but it just may extend to asking, “How’s the family?” when on a business call. It can be up to you how much you want to discuss your personal life outside of work, but it can make for a more enjoyable business experience.
  • Paper-pushers: These are the ones who stay in the office pining over comma placement. If you’re not looking to socialize and just want someone to stick to drafting, this might be your pick.
  • Combination: Realistically, most attorneys are a combination of some of the above. Some attorneys might be nice until they have a reason to scream. Some may spend most of the time at the office but accept your invitation to the afterparty at next week’s show.

Again, it really is about how well you work with the person and what you want in your relationship with him or her. However, style is an important point because having an attorney with the wrong style may end up breaking deals instead of making them on your behalf.

6. Similar clients

You might consider an attorney who already has clients in a similar style and genre to your music.This isn’t essential, but it is a good starting point for an artist who does not currently know any attorneys and wants to do some research on who to further pursue. In addition, an attorney with similar clients may also have already established connections and relationships with other artists or companies you’d like to work with, which can work to your advantage.

7. Price

Attorneys have different billing rates that are usually based on their experience and number of years in practice. Some attorneys only bill hourly and/or require retainers (upfront payments of estimated fees), while some will also charge a flat fee or take a percentage of your income or a deal. Ask the attorney for his or her rates and fee structure. Take serious consideration of what the attorney quotes you and whether you can afford it. Attorney services can be expensive, but it’s important that you pay your attorney for his or her work as he or she has invested time and skill in completing tasks on your behalf, even if that task is answering questions over the telephone. Legal advice is not free; your attorney is providing you a service based on many years of training, knowledge, and experience.

8. Location

Attorneys are licensed by state, so you want to be cognizant of whether the attorney is licensed in your home state, as licensing restrictions may prevent an out-of-state attorney from completing tasks on your behalf or may require the involvement of another attorney licensed in your state, which can mean added fees for you.

While a lot of correspondence with your attorney can often be done over telephone and email, you may also want to make sure the attorney’s office is in a convenient location if you have to travel to his or her office.

Now that you’re aware of what to look for in an attorney, you might wonder where to find one. Next time, I will discuss how to find potential attorneys as well as options for musicians who need legal services but are not quite ready to add an attorney to their teams.

This post first appeared on Sonicbids.com.

Disclaimer: This article is for educational and informational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice. The content contained in this article is not legal advice or a legal opinion on any specific matter or matters. If this article is considered an advertisement, it is general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. This article does not constitute or create a lawyer-client relationship between Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. and you or any other user. The law may vary based on the facts or particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking the professional counsel of an attorney licensed in your state.

Erin M. Jacobson is a practicing music attorney, experienced deal negotiator, and seasoned advisor of intellectual property rights. Her clients range from Grammy and Emmy Award winners to independent artists, record labels, music publishers, and production companies. Ms. Jacobson also owns and oversees all operations for Indie Artist Resource, the independent musician’s resource for legal and business protection offering template contracts, consultations, and other services designed to meet the unique needs of independent musicians.

 

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Client Gary Kuo Wins Sixth Emmy Award

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Categories: Clients, Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Congratulations are in order for my client Gary Kuo who has just taken home his sixth Emmy Award as composer for All My Children.

garyemmy6

Visit www.garykuo.com for more information on Gary and to purchase music.

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How to Choose the Right Attorney for YOU – Part 8

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Categories: Business, Music Industry, Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Over the last several weeks, I have outlined many qualities to consider when choosing an attorney.  Once you have decided what kind of attorney you want, the next step is actually finding one

How to find an attorney?

Ask your other creative friends whom they use as their attorney.  With the wealth of information on the Internet, it is also possible to find information for the attorney of another artist you admire.  There are several attorney directories like lawyers.com and findlaw.com you can browse.  You can also search for attorneys and view their websites, or refer to networks like LinkedIn.

© 2010 Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. All Rights Reserved. If you like this article and want to share it, you may provide a link to www.erinmjacobsonesq.com or a direct link to the post for others to read it. You may not reprint this article without written permission from Erin M. Jacobson, Esq.

This site is not intended or offered as legal advice. These materials have been prepared for educational and information purposes only. They are not legal advice or legal opinions on any specific matters. If they are considered advertisements, they are general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. Transmission of the information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, a lawyer-client relationship between this site, Erin M. Jacobson, Esq., and you or any other user. The content is not guaranteed to be correct, complete, or up-to-date. The law may vary based on the facts of particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking professional counsel. No person should act or fail to act on any legal matter based on the contents of this site. Unless expressly stated otherwise, no document herein should be assumed to be produced by an attorney licensed in your state. For more information, please click on the “Disclaimer” section in the top menu of this site.

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How to Choose the Right Attorney for YOU – Part 7

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Categories: Business, Music Industry, Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

You know what they say:  “Location, location, location!”

Location

If you have to meet with your attorney or go to his/her office, you may want to make sure the attorney’s office is in a convenient location or that you are willing and able to travel to his/her office.

Next time, I’ll discuss how to find an attorney after thinking about all of the criteria I have explained over the last several weeks.

© 2010 Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. All Rights Reserved. If you like this article and want to share it, you may provide a link to www.erinmjacobsonesq.com or a direct link to the post for others to read it. You may not reprint this article without written permission from Erin M. Jacobson, Esq.

This site is not intended or offered as legal advice. These materials have been prepared for educational and information purposes only. They are not legal advice or legal opinions on any specific matters. If they are considered advertisements, they are general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. Transmission of the information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, a lawyer-client relationship between this site, Erin M. Jacobson, Esq., and you or any other user. The content is not guaranteed to be correct, complete, or up-to-date. The law may vary based on the facts of particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking professional counsel. No person should act or fail to act on any legal matter based on the contents of this site. Unless expressly stated otherwise, no document herein should be assumed to be produced by an attorney licensed in your state. For more information, please click on the “Disclaimer” section in the top menu of this site.

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How to Choose the Right Attorney for YOU – Part 6

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Categories: Business, Music Industry, Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Always an important concern is price.  How much does the attorney charge?

Price

Attorneys have different billing rates based, which are mostly based on their experience and number of years in practice.  Some attorneys only bill hourly and/or take retainers, while some will also charge a flat fee or take a percentage of income.  Take serious consideration of what the attorney quotes you and whether you can afford it.  An attorney will not be happy if you think you can afford their rate and then rack up a large bill you cannot pay.

There is one point I need to address because I feel a lot of people do not understand it.  Lawyer’s rates are based on time expended on a matter, experience, years of schooling and learning a skill.  It is different than walking into a store and getting a product.  Many people seem to feel that they should not have to pay for legal services because they do not walk out of the office with a tangible product in hand.  When you pay an attorney, you are paying for that person’s time and skill.  You are paying them to provide a service to you that you should not provide for yourself.  Even attorneys hire other attorneys when they have legal problems.  Just as you spent your time and used your talent to craft a song or write a screenplay and expect to be paid for it, the attorney will do work for you and expect to be paid for it.

Next time, I’ll address attorney location concerns.

© 2010 Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. All Rights Reserved. If you like this article and want to share it, you may provide a link to www.erinmjacobsonesq.com or a direct link to the post for others to read it. You may not reprint this article without written permission from Erin M. Jacobson, Esq.

This site is not intended or offered as legal advice. These materials have been prepared for educational and information purposes only. They are not legal advice or legal opinions on any specific matters. If they are considered advertisements, they are general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. Transmission of the information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, a lawyer-client relationship between this site, Erin M. Jacobson, Esq., and you or any other user. The content is not guaranteed to be correct, complete, or up-to-date. The law may vary based on the facts of particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking professional counsel. No person should act or fail to act on any legal matter based on the contents of this site. Unless expressly stated otherwise, no document herein should be assumed to be produced by an attorney licensed in your state. For more information, please click on the “Disclaimer” section in the top menu of this site.

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How to Choose the Right Attorney for YOU – Part 5

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Categories: Business, Music Industry, Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Consequences

Something that goes along with your attorney’s style is the consequences of your attorney’s style.  Some attorneys have bad reputations and people do not want to  deal with them.  Other attorneys have killed or almost killed deals for clients because they are difficult to work with or have a large ego.  Ask other people you know in the industry if they know anything about the attorney, or even ask the attorney for references.  If they are well respected, it will show.

Next time, I’ll talk about fees.

© 2010 Erin M. Jacobson, Esq. All Rights Reserved. If you like this article and want to share it, you may provide a link to www.erinmjacobsonesq.com or a direct link to the post for others to read it. You may not reprint this article without written permission from Erin M. Jacobson, Esq.

This site is not intended or offered as legal advice. These materials have been prepared for educational and information purposes only. They are not legal advice or legal opinions on any specific matters. If they are considered advertisements, they are general in nature and not directed towards any particular person or entity. Transmission of the information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, a lawyer-client relationship between this site, Erin M. Jacobson, Esq., and you or any other user. The content is not guaranteed to be correct, complete, or up-to-date. The law may vary based on the facts of particular circumstances or the law in your state. You should not act, or fail to act, upon this information without seeking professional counsel. No person should act or fail to act on any legal matter based on the contents of this site. Unless expressly stated otherwise, no document herein should be assumed to be produced by an attorney licensed in your state. For more information, please click on the “Disclaimer” section in the top menu of this site.
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